THE AUXILIARY VERBS

TO BE, TO HAVE, TO DO

[See also : DO, BE and HAVE as ordinary verbs]

1.FUNCTION:

BE
HAVE

Be and have are used to form several tenses in English

Examples:
a. Progressive tenses with be:
I am working in the office.
She was talking when he came in.

b.The passive with be:
The butter is kept in the fridge.
The painting was stolen.

c. Perfect tenses with have:
She has lived in London since 1987.
They had stopped for a drink when he telephoned.

Do is used to form the interrogative and negative of ordinary verbs

Examples:

Interrogative with do:
a. Do you speak English?
b. Did Peter live in Hong Kong?
c. Does Helen know Peter?

Negative with do:
a. I don't speak English.
b. Peter didn't live in Hong Kong.
c. Helen doesn't know Peter.

AFFIRMATIVE FORM :

PRESENT SIMPLE

*Note: Third person singular :Simple Present:

BE

HAVE

DO

I

am

have

do

YOU

are

have

do

*HE, SHE, IT

is

has

does

WE

are

have

do

YOU

are

have

do

THEY

are

have

do

       

Examples :

As ordinary verbs:

a. She is English.
b. He has an apartment in Paris.
c. They are Italian.
d. We have three children.
e. She does three hours of exercise a day.

As auxiliary verbs:

a. She is speaking English.
b. They have been to Paris.
c. Does she do three hours of exercise a day?

NEGATIVE FORM :

Important!

Important!

PRESENT SIMPLE

Be, Have, Do + NOT

To make an auxiliary negative we add 'not' after the verb.

Note the contractions : aren't, isn't, haven't, doesn't etc. (contracted forms - widely used in English).

Examples :

As ordinary verbs:

a. They are not French.
b. He doesn't exercise every day.
c. She hasn't an apartment in London.

As auxiliaries:

d. They aren't speaking French.
e. She hasn't visited London.
f. They don't know Peter Kinder.

THE AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE FORMS:

PRESENT SIMPLE

Affirmative Interrogative Form - Negative Interrogative Form

BE

HAVE

DO

Am I? - Aren't I?

Have I? - Haven't I?

Do I? - Don't I?

Are you? - Aren't you?

Have you? - Haven't you?

Do you? - Don't you?

Is she? - Isn't she?

Has he? - Hasn't he?

Does it? - Doesn't it?

Are we? - Aren't we?

Have we? - Haven't we?

Do we? - Don't we?

Are you? - Aren't you?

Have you? - Haven't you?

Do you? - Don't you?

Are they? Aren't they?

Have they? - Haven't they?

Do they? - Don't they?

* Note: Aren't I? is an irregular contraction

Examples :

As ordinary verbs:

a. Are you Spanish ?
b. No, I am not.
c. Aren't they hungry ?
d. No, they aren't hungry.
e. Does he do much homework?
f. No, he doesn't do any homework.

As auxiliaries:

g. Is she living in Paris?
h. No, she's not living in Paris.
i. Does she like Roger?
j. No, she doesn't like him.
k. Have they gone home?
l. No, they haven't gone home.

We invert (change the position of subject and verb) auxiliary verbs to make them interrogative.

He is French.
Is he French?

He is not French.
Isn't he French?

Note: The interrogative negative is nearly always contracted.


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